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Wind power forecasting is becoming an important tool in electricity markets as the amount of wind power rapidly increases. However, the use of wind power forecasting in market operations and among market participants is still at an early stage. We discuss the current use of wind power forecasting in U.S. ISO/RTO markets, and give recommendations for how to make efficient use of the information in state-of-the-art wind power forecasts.
This study was conducted to evaluate the causality between energy consumption, GDP growth and carbon emissions for eight Asia-Pacific countries from 1971 to 2005 using the panel data. The results indicate that there are long-run equilibrium relationships between these variables. Additionally, causality from energy consumption to CO2 emissions was observed generally, but there were some opposite relationships also. Parameter estimations of the panel data model indicate that there are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. The base carbon emissions, per capita energy consumption...
This study evaluates the environmental impact of the cement production and its variations between different cement plants, using Life Cycle Impact Assessment. For that purpose, details of the cement production processes are investigated in order to show the respective part of raw materials preparation and clinker production using environmental impacts calculated with CML01 indicators. For the kiln emission data, a European pollutant emission register for French intensive industries is used to quantify the variability of indicators between cement plants. For the CML01 indicators that are controlled by kiln emissions, some of them (i.e. global warming, photochemical oxidation) show variations between cement plants...
Ecological and economic systems are open systems that require energy to change the thermodynamic states of materials from naturally occurring to more valued forms. These changes are accompanied by information flows and changes in the order of systems and their surroundings. In this paper, thermodynamics is used to assess these system changes and relate them to the knowledge present in a system. Particular emphasis is given to (1) the fundamental relationships among material, energy and information flows, and changes in order and knowledge, (2) the role of equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics in assessing system change, (3) the increasing role of material and energy flows through economic systems, and (4)...
This study was conducted to evaluate the causality between energy consumption, GDP growth and carbon emissions for eight Asia-Pacific countries from 1971 to 2005 using the panel data. The results indicate that there are long-run equilibrium relationships between these variables. Additionally, causality from energy consumption to CO2 emissions was observed generally, but there were some opposite relationships also. Parameter estimations of the panel data model indicate that there are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. The base carbon emissions, per capita energy consumption...
For the globalized world economy with intensive international trade, an overview of energy consumption is presented by an embodied energy analysis to track both direct and indirect energy uses based on a systems input–output simulation. In 2004, the total amounts of energy embodied in household consumption, government consumption, and investment are 7749, 874, and 2009 Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent), respectively. The United States is shown as the world’s biggest embodied energy importer (683 Mtoe) and embodied energy surplus receiver (290 Mtoe), in contrast to China as the biggest exporter (662 Mtoe) and deficit receiver (274 Mtoe). Energy embodied in consumption per capita varies from 0.05 (Uganda) to 19.54...
Non-CO2 greenhouse gases, included in the Kyoto Protocol, are methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hexafluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorinated compounds (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Together they account for about 25% of the present global greenhouse gas emissions. Reductions in emissions of these gases have occurred in the industrialised countries, and they contribute to the efforts to reach the target of 5% greenhouse gas emission reduction as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol for these countries. Globally however, greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase as do the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere. The relation between emissions and concentrations is not clear for all non-CO2 greenhouse gases....
This study uses a hedonic price model to estimate the effect of proximity to a ma jor fuel pipeline on housing prices, both before and after a high-profile accident. Using data for Belling ham, Washington, the site of a 1999 rupture and explosion, we find no significant effect of proximity to the pipeline prior to the accident. Following the accident, we find a substantial price effect; however, the effect decays rapidly with distance from the pipe line and also diminishes over time. Results suggest that for this type of environmental hazard, an ad verse event leads to an increase in perceived risk.
Wind power forecasting is becoming an important tool in electricity markets as the amount of wind power rapidly increases. However, the use of wind power forecasting in market operations and among market participants is still at an early stage. We discuss the current use of wind power forecasting in U.S. ISO/RTO markets, and give recommendations for how to make efficient use of the information in state-of-the-art wind power forecasts.
The U.S. continues efforts to develop genetically superior short-rotation woody crops (hybrid poplar and willow) and herbaceous crops (switchgrass). These biomass crops can provide multiple environmental benefits as well as energy and fiber. This paper focuses on results of site-specific studies that are quantifying the environmental potential and ramifications of converting agricultural croplands to biomass crop production. At research-scales, no differences have been found in erosion and movement of nutrients from annual row crops, switchgrass, and tree crops with and without a cover crop in the initial year of establishment. Research- and watershed-scale studies on different soil types, in different regions,...
Broadening the IYamework of enviromnental impact assessment (EIA) involves an e×amination of the principles and policies which should underlie ecologically sustainable development. To work effectively, EIA procedures need to be located within a broad fi'amework of policies and environmental objectives, standards and monitoring. This paper discusses the political and environmental context in Australia within which the debate on sustainable development is occurring. Some important principles which underlie an ecologically sustainable development policy IYamework are discussed, These include inter-generational equity, conservation of biological diversity and ecological integrity, maintenance of natural capital and...