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Conclusions:Wetland extent, proximity of wetlands to the sampling station, and the position of a wetland in a watershed (downstream wetlands have greater influence on water quality) influence water quality.Thresholds/Learnings:
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Synopsis: Prior to European settlement, the Northern Mixed-grass Prairie was a mosaic of wetland, grassland and grass-shrub habitats, with riparian and floodplain forests along major drainages. Even today, the physiographic area can be characterized as being one of the largest still relatively intact grassland landscapes that persist in North America. It is the continent’s most important production area for waterfowl and is the heart of the breeding range for some of North America’s rarest species of grassland birds. A comparison of relative abundance estimates among physiographic areas sampled by the North American Breeding Bird Survey indicates that more than 40% of the world’s population of Baird’s Sparrows,...
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Conclusions: In fragmented watersheds, macrohabitat attributes measured at the patch scale were far more effective in predicting trout translocation success than measurements taken at the landscape scale Thresholds/Learnings: As a course filter indicator of cutthroat trout translocation success, the study found that translocations have a greater than 50% chance of fruitful establishment in watersheds >14.7km2 in area. Synopsis: This study aimed to identify stream-scale and basin-scale macrohabitat attributes limiting successful translocation and persistence of native cutthroat trout populations in fragmented landscapes along the Rio Grande. The study developed models of habitat attributes measured at two scales...
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Synopsis: This study analyzed the effects of vegetation change on hydrological fluctuations in the Columbia River basin over the last century using two land cover scenarios. The first scenario was a reconstruction of historical land cover vegetation, c. 1900. The second scenario was more recent land cover as estimated from remote sensing data for 1990. The results show that, hydrologically, the most important vegetation-related change has been a general tendency towards decreased vegetation maturity in the forested areas of the basin. This general trend represents a balance between the effects of logging and fire suppression. In those areas where forest maturity has been reduced as a result of logging, wintertime...
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Synopsis: This article outlines how wetlands can significantly reduce flooding in the Upper Mississippi watershed. The authors first provide a historical context by estimating the original and lost wetland storage capacities of the Upper Mississippi and Missouri River Basins. Historically, about 10% of the basin would have been classified as wetland in 1780. By 1980, wetland acreage had been reduced to only 4% of the basin, representing about 26 million acres of wetlands eliminated since 1780. The area of wetland restoration required to reduce the risk of future flooding adequately was estimated based on the total amount of excess floodwater beyond bank-full discharge that passed through the City of St. Louis during...
Conclusions:Wetlands and riparian zones should be strategically placed in watersheds to optimize nitrogen removal, as, for example, in tile-drained farmlands prone to high concentrations of nitrateThresholds/Learnings:Restoring 10 million hectares of riparian zones and wetlands, representing 3.4% of the Mississippi River basin, would reduce nitrogen in the Mississippi River Basin and its tributaries by an average of 40%
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Conclusions: Habitat changes resulting from timber harvest have altered the predator–prey balance leading to asymmetric predation affecting the survivial rates of endangered mountain caribou Thresholds/Learnings: As young forest stands increase in proportion to old forests, caribou population densities and survival rates decline as they become increasingly vulnerable to predation and extripation. Synopsis: Timber harvesting in areas of Mountain Caribou habitat have created landscapes of early seral forests. Such habitat changes have altered the predator–prey balance resulting in asymmetric predation in which predators are maintained by alternative prey (i.e. apparent competition). This study estimates survival...
Conclusions:Wetlands were found to work best, in terms of providing ecosystem services, as spatially distributed systems. Wetland value was also found to be highly depended on its hydrogeomorphic position in the landscape relative to other landscape features and human settlements. Wetlands should comprise 3-7% of temperate watersheds for flood control and improved water qualityThresholds/Learnings:Wetlands should comprise 3-7% of temperate watersheds for flood control and improved water quality
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Synopsis: Recent reports clearly indicate that odor emitted from concentrated livestock production facilities in the Midwest of the US is a significant social problem that negatively impacts rural and state economies, human health, and the quality of rural life. A potential incremental approach to dealing with livestock odor is the use of shelterbelts arranged in strategic designs near and within livestock facilities. This review outlines the various ways that shelterbelts can be effective technology which biophysically mitigates odor thereby reducing social conflict from odor nuisance. The biophysical potential of shelterbelts to mitigate livestock odor arises from the tree/shrub impacts on the central characteristics...
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This report is synthesizes and summarizes major findings from literature relating to the direct and indirect ecological impacts of paved highways on birds. It represents a meta-analysis of contributing factors of road mortality, effects of roadway lighting, traffic noise, traffic volume, and roadway contaminants on bird populations, which may help guide conservation efforts within the Yellowstone to Yukon ecoregion. Traffic volume and noise are believed to be the most important factors affecting breeding bird population densities near roads. The number of affected species increases with traffic volume but the relationship appears to reach threshold at an average daily traffic volume of 30,000 vehicles a day. In...
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Synopsis: Wind erosion control is typically needed in areas with low and variable precipitation and frequent droughts, and where high winds, high temperature and consequent high evaporation are common conditions, such as in southern Alberta. Potential average annual erosion rates from wind erosion are predicted using the wind erosion equation E= f(I, K, C, L, V) where I is the soil erodibility index, K is the soil-ridge-roughness factor, C is the climactic factor, L is the unsheltered, weighted travel distance of the wind across a field and V is the equivalent vegetated cover. Wind erosion can be controlled with one or more of the following five basic principles of wind erosion control: · Reduce field widths...
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Synopsis: A review of the scientific literature describing the effects of linear developments on wildlife, especially large mammals, was provided. Of particular interest were the types of roads and linear developments created by the oil and pipeline industries in western Canada. The effects of linear developments (roads, powerline/pipeline rights-of-way, deforested strips) on wildlife were examined in the context of regional and landscape ecology. The review describes the different classes of linear disturbances, the various response categories for animal species and the impacts on species for the different classes. The review also provides potential mitigations and recommendations for landscape scale planning...
Conclusions:distance from edge and the habitat heterogeneity were the most important variables affecting bryophyte and lichen species richnessThresholds/Learnings:Temperature and light intensity decreased, and humidity increased up to 15m from the edge of fragments in the study.
Conclusions:Severe fire regimes create essential habitat conditions for certain habitat specialists.Thresholds/Learnings:
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Synopsis: Windbreaks are a major component of successful agricultural landscapes. At the farm scale, they help control erosion and blowing snow, improve animal health and survival under winter conditions, reduce energy consumption of the farmstead, and enhance habitat diversity. At a landscape scale, they provide habitat for various types of wildlife and have the potential to contribute significant benefits to the carbon balance equation, thereby easing the economic burdens associated with climate change. The effectiveness of a windbreak is determined partially by its external structure including its height, length, orientation, continuity, width, and cross-sectional shape and partially by its internal structure...
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Conclusions: Caribou demonstrated patterns of avoidance near linear features such as pipelines, roads, and other oil field structures. Females demonstrated heightened avoidance, especially during calving seasons. Thresholds/Learnings: Synopsis: This study documented the behavioural reactions of caribou to oil development in the circumpolar regions of the northern hemisphere. Researchers observed patterns of avoidance near linear features such as pipelines, roads, and other oil field structures. Female caribou, especially those accompanied by calves avoided these areas in particular. Male caribou were more apt to occupy areas influenced by oil field structures and activity. In summary, the patterns oil field development...
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Synopsis: Synthesizes information on a range of tools for reducing the footprint of human use, with an intended focus on public lands and associated natural resources. Implementation considerations and links to other resources are provided. Many tools are related either directly or indirectly to landscape patterns. For example, the section on “Disturbance Standards, Limits, or Thresholds” provides guidance and case study examples of pattern-based threshold establishment and implementation considerations in Alberta, California, and Australia. Many other Integrated Land Management tools outlined also relate directly or indirectly to landscape patterns and techniques for their management. Selected examples under the...
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Synopsis: Classical demographic methods applied to life history data on the northern spotted owl yield an estimate of the annual geometric rate of increase for the population of λ = 0.96 ± 0.03, which is not significantly different from that for a stable population (λ = 1.00). Sensitivity analysis indicates that adult annual survivorship has by far the largest influence on λ, followed by the probability that juveniles survive dispersal, and the adult annual fecundity. Substantial temporal fluctuations in demographic parameters have little effect on the long-run growth rate of the population because of the long adult life expectancy. A model of dispersal and territory occupancy that assumes demographic equilibrium...
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Conclusions: Report identifies regional patterns of habitat disturbance, land use practices, and population trends relative to greater sage-grouse. In general, the most important landscape characteristics influencing sage-grouse populations are the proximity of leks (areas in which males perform to nesting habitat for and The report examined findings from studies that indicate several area and distance specific conservation thresholds for maintaining viable sage-grouse habitat. Thresholds/Learnings: Male sage-grouse prefer sod-forming grasses or bare ground for leks; female sage-grouse prefer dense sagebrush stands surrounding leks for nesting; gentle terrain characterized by <10% slope; <5% of existing sagebrush...
Conclusions:Results indicated that system and species-specific considerations are important when assessing the potential outcome of habitat loss and fragmentation on regional biotaThresholds/Learnings:


map background search result map search result map Effects of paved roads on birds: a literature review and recommendations for the Yellowstone to Yukon Ecoregion Caribou in the Changing North Changes in landscape composition influence the decline of a threatened woodland caribou population Minimum habitat requirements for establishing translocated cutthroat trout populations. Flood reduction through wetand restoration: the Upper Mississippi River Basin as a case history. Effects of land cover change on streamflow in the interior Columbia River Basin (USA and Canada). Conservation Assessment of Greater Sage-Grouse and Sagebrush Habitats Integrated Land Management Tools Compendium The Effects of Linear Developments on Wildlife: A Review of Selected Scientific Literature Demographic models of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan for Northern Mixed-Grass Prairie Windbreaks in North American Agricultural Systems Basic principles of wind erosion control Mitigating swine odor with strategically designed shelterbelt systems: a review. Minimum habitat requirements for establishing translocated cutthroat trout populations. Changes in landscape composition influence the decline of a threatened woodland caribou population Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan for Northern Mixed-Grass Prairie Demographic models of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) Integrated Land Management Tools Compendium Flood reduction through wetand restoration: the Upper Mississippi River Basin as a case history. Effects of land cover change on streamflow in the interior Columbia River Basin (USA and Canada). Conservation Assessment of Greater Sage-Grouse and Sagebrush Habitats Effects of paved roads on birds: a literature review and recommendations for the Yellowstone to Yukon Ecoregion The Effects of Linear Developments on Wildlife: A Review of Selected Scientific Literature Caribou in the Changing North Windbreaks in North American Agricultural Systems Basic principles of wind erosion control Mitigating swine odor with strategically designed shelterbelt systems: a review.