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Conservation planning, the process of deciding how to protect, conserve, enhance and(or) minimize loss of natural and cultural resources, is a fundamental process to achieve conservation success in a time of rapid environmental change. Conservation targets, the measurable expressions of desired resource conditions, are an important tool in biological planning to achieve effective outcomes. Conservation targets provide a focus for planning, design, conservation action, and collaborative monitoring of environmental trends to guide landscape-scale conservation to improve the quality and quantity of key ecological and cultural resources. It is essential to have an iterative and inclusive method to define conservation...
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Key elements of the 2015 national assessment of stream fish habitats follow the 2010 assessment, including: 1) the idea that distributions and numbers fishes reflect the quality of habitat in which they live; and 2) human landscape factors pose a risk to the condition of stream habitat, and indirectly, to fishes. The 2015 inland stream assessments for the contiguous United States, Alaska, and Hawaii all followed five broad steps (Figure 1) that are described in detail below for the inland stream assessment for Alaska. Note that analytical details for the Alaska assessment differed in southeast Alaska as compared to the remainder of the state (referred to as greater Alaska) due to differences in the resolution of...
Tags: 2015, Alaska, Method
Accounting for natural variation With the exception of differences in spatial units, assessments for greater Alaska and southeast Alaska were conducted similarly across regions. Because stream fish assemblage data were not available for the state, no steps were taken to account for natural variation in stream habitats for either southeast or greater Alaska. This represents an important need for future work.
Tags: 2015, Alaska, Method
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The purpose of the Coral Reef Evaluation and Monitoring Project (CREMP) is to monitor the status and trends of selected reefs in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary(FKNMS).CREMP assessments have been conducted annually at fixed sites since 1996 and data collectedprovides information on the temporal changes in benthic cover and diversity of stony corals andassociated marine flora and fauna. The core field methods continue to be underwatervideography and timed coral species inventories. Findings presented in this report include datafrom 109 stations at 37 sites sampled from 1996 through 2008 in the Florida Keys and 1999 through 2008 in the Dry Tortugas. The report describes the annual differences (between 2007...
Categories: Data; Types: NetCDF OPeNDAP Service; Tags: Florida Keys Coral Reef Monitoring Project2001, absence, aphia, area, array, All tags...
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Integrating data into a spatial framework After acquiring data, variables were attributed to a national stream coverage for use in assessment following Wang et al. (2011). The National Hydrography Dataset Version 1 (NHDV1) is a 1:100,000 scale representation of streams from throughout the conterminous United States. The NHDV1 identifies stream reaches as sections of streams occurring between confluences (Figure 2). We attributed all data to stream reaches (i.e., fish data, fragmentation metrics by dams) or to local catchments and 90m buffers draining to stream reaches (i.e., human land uses, mining activities, impervious surfaces, etc.). Local catchments (watersheds) and buffers are the land areas draining directly...
Tags: 2015, CONUS, Method
Identifying disturbances to fish habitat The approach for identifying disturbances to fish habitat was based on the assumption that greater intensities and types of human landscape disturbances would most likely lead to more disturbed stream fish habitat (e.g., Danz et al. 2007, Esselman et al. 2011). Twenty-two human landscape variables were identified for the Alaska assessment, with 21 variables used in the southeast and 19 in greater Alaska. We grouped variables into six sub-indices representing specific types of disturbances including: urban land use, agricultural land use, stream fragmentation, point source pollution, infrastructure, and active mines. Each sub-index of disturbance was represented by 2 to...
Tags: 2015, Alaska, Method
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Integrating data into a spatial framework Greater Alaska For most of Alaska excluding the southeast portion of the state, watershed boundaries for individual stream reaches were unavailable, and the highest resolution spatial units available for assessment were 12-digit USGS hydrological units (HUC-12s). Greater Alaska includes 12,824 HUC-12s that partially follow watershed boundaries; however, boundaries are also intended to capture roughly similarly-sized regions vs. entire upstream landscape areas draining to streams (Figure 11). After acquiring data, variables were attributed to HUC-12s for the greater Alaska assessment. Southeast Alaska For the southeast portion of Alaska, watersheds were delineated from...
Tags: 2015, Alaska, Method
Mining and civil engineering industries sometimes use drilling muds for stabilizing a borehole during drilling wells for methane drainage, geothermal energy and radioactive waste disposal. Standard theories predicting borehole breakdown pressure assume breakdown occurs when a small fracture initiates at a location where the largest tangential stress at the borehole reaches the tensile strength of formation. Fracturing tests conducted in this study, how- ever, showed that when drilling fluid was used as an injection fluid, borehole breakdown did not occur even if a fracture initiated at a borehole wall. Bore- hole breakdown occurred when the initiated fracture became unstable after significant growth with O. 76cm...
Flow alterations related to hydroelectric development have affected both the fish stocks and the Cree Indian subsistence fishery in the lower LaGrande River, northern Quebec. Evaluated against several years of baseline data, thei nitial biologicali mpact of the project on fish populations, mostly whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and cisco (C. artedii), appeared to be relatively small. Nevertheless, fishing activity in the lower river and the estuary largely ceased from 1979 to 1981, due to physical modifications of traditional fishing areas and other social and economic effects related to the hydro project. Some fishermen modified their methods and continued harvesting in the affected area, but others abandoned...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: acceptable, coal, method, trace elements
Assembling Response Data The assessment uses available fish and shellfish species presence/absence as indicators of the effects of anthropogenic (human caused) stressors on the estuarine habitats where fish and shellfish live, feed, and reproduce. Fish data were obtained from state and federal trawl survey programs, including each of the five coastal states as well as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) and National Coastal Assessment (NCA). Fish trawl nets are pulled through the water at specified sampling locations for a set period of time to determine the abundance and diversity of fish in the area. Environmental data like water temperature,...
Conservation planning, the process of deciding how to protect, conserve, enhance and(or) minimize loss of natural and cultural resources, is a fundamental process to achieve conservation success in a time of rapid environmental change. Conservation targets, the measurable expressions of desired resource conditions, are an important tool in biological planning to achieve effective outcomes. Conservation targets provide a focus for planning, design, conservation action, and collaborative monitoring of environmental trends to guide landscape-scale conservation to improve the quality and quantity of key ecological and cultural resources. It is essential to have an iterative and inclusive method to define conservation...
Developing Sub-Indices of Disturbance Variables within each of the four disturbance categories (Land Use/Land Cover, Alteration of River Flows, Sources of Pollution, and Estuary Eutrophication) were combined to create a sub-index of disturbance associated with each category. To calculate the sub-indices, a percent rank was calculated for variable scores in each estuary. Percent rank scores were inverted (i.e. 1-percent rank) where necessary to maintain consistency of interpretation, with low scores representing the highest degree of disturbance. Within each disturbance category, the average of each of the variable percent rank values was calculated. Finally, the percent rank of this average was calculated – this...
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Data on stream fishes were provided for use in the 2015 assessment by the Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources. Data were collected from 1992 to 2010, and assemblages were sampled using standardized visual surveys (Higashi and Nishimoto 2007). Fish data indicated presence or absence of nine native taxa in stream reaches including five fluvial fish species, two shrimp species, a gastropod, and two species of native flagtails (treated as a single taxonomic group analytically) that periodically enter the stream from the nearshore coastal environment (Table 6). Fish presence-absence data were available for 403 perennial stream reaches throughout the five main Hawaiian Islands. Many different human landscape factors...
Tags: 2015, Hawaii, Method
Stream fish data providers for 2015 national assessment of stream fish habitats.
Conservation planning, the process of deciding how to protect, conserve, enhance and(or) minimize loss of natural and cultural resources, is a fundamental process to achieve conservation success in a time of rapid environmental change. Conservation targets, the measurable expressions of desired resource conditions, are an important tool in biological planning to achieve effective outcomes. Conservation targets provide a focus for planning, design, conservation action, and collaborative monitoring of environmental trends to guide landscape-scale conservation to improve the quality and quantity of key ecological and cultural resources. It is essential to have an iterative and inclusive method to define conservation...
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In 1998, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's (FWC) Fisheries Independent Monitoring (FIM) program began a long-term monitoring effort of key reef fish populations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. This effort was aimed at evaluating the relative abundance, size structure, and habitat utilization of specific reef fish species that are targeted by commercial and recreational fisheries.; Smith,S.G., et al. 2011,Multispecies survey design for assessing reef-fish stocks, spatially explicit management performance, and ecosystem condition. Fisheries Research 109(2011)25-41; Brandt,M.E., et. al. 2009,A Cooperative Multi-agency Reef Fish Monitoring Protocol for the Florida Keys Coral Reef...
Categories: Data; Types: NetCDF OPeNDAP Service; Tags: Atmosphere > Air Quality > Visibility, Dry Tortugas Reef Visual Census 2016, absence, air, aphia, All tags...
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Assembling data Data on stream fishes were provided for use in the 2015 assessment from many federal and state agencies and organizations from around the country. For a list of data providers, see Table 2. Due to the cooperation and support of multiple data providers, the 2015 assessment used stream fish assemblage data from 39,405 stream reaches as compared to 26,468 stream reaches in 2010 assessment. Data now reflects abundances of different fish species found in streams throughout the conterminous United States. Besides fish data, many different human (anthropogenic) landscape factors were assembled and used to characterize habitat condition. These factors include: urban and agricultural land use; intensity...
Tags: 2015, CONUS, Method
Screening Responses to Individual Stressors We used hierarchical models to develop the northern Gulf of Mexico Regional Estuary Assessment. This approach is a compromise between pooling all data from each estuary together into a single model, and modeling each estuary separately. For hierarchical models, the intercept and/or slope parameters can vary among different groups in the model. The assessment defines groups as estuaries and states (FL, AL, MS, LA, and TX). “Random effects” in hierarchical models account for group-level differences that are not accounted for by the available predictor variables. For example, some variation between estuaries is due to different morphologies and physical features that are...
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Creating cumulative habitat condition scores To create the cumulative habitat condition index (CHCI) for streams of the conterminous United States, associations between multiple fish metrics and multiple human landscape factors were synthesized into a single number using the following scoring process. 5a. For each significant association between a fish metric and a human landscape factor, we evaluated the shape of the relationship to identify two key points. The “ threshold point” is the level of a landscape factor associated with a decrease in abundance of a particular fish metric (change in condition class between 5 and 4 in Figure 4), and the “plateau point” is the level of a landscape factor beyond which increasing...
Tags: 2015, CONUS, Method
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Assembling Data We used datasets of habitat stressors available at a national scale and measured within estuaries and their associated watersheds. Included datasets represent anthropogenic stressors likely to affect fish habitat within estuaries based on evidence from the published habitat ecology literature. Although many important factors were included, not all data were available at sufficient spatial resolution or geographic breadth for meaningful analysis. Some important datasets that were investigated but determined to be insufficient for inclusion in the current version of the National Estuary Assessment included: historic habitat extent/habitat loss; storm/wastewater discharges; sediment contaminants; biogenic...


map background search result map search result map 2001 Florida Keys Coral Reef Monitoring Project 2016 Dry Tortugas Reef Visual Census, v3.3 2016 Dry Tortugas Reef Visual Census, v3.3 2001 Florida Keys Coral Reef Monitoring Project