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Conclusions:The effects of landscape fragmentation depend on habitat structure, landscape context, the predator community, and the impact of parasitism. Because these factors differ substantially in western ecosystem compared to eastern forest ecosystems, it is difficult to make universal generalizations about the effects of landscape fragmentation on ecosystem processes and wildlife dynamicsThresholds/Learnings:
Conclusions: Nest predators with different home-range sizes and habitat affinities responded to landscape configuration in different ways. Influence of landscape structure varied across scale. Thresholds/Learnings: Herbaceous cover was negatively associated with predation in roadsides whereas the proximity of woody cover was positively associated with predation rates. Synopsis: This study evaluated the influence of habitat structure and spatial configuration on nest predation in central Iowa. In a multi-scale analysis of 10 artificial ground nests along 136 roadsides across six watersheds, researchers found that predation was affected by the surrounding landscape mosaic. Nest predators with different home-range...
The consequences of climate change for ecosystem structure and function remain largely unknown. Here, I examine the ability of climate variation to explain long-term changes in bird and plant populations, as well as trophic interactions in a high-elevation riparian system in central Arizona, USA, based on 20 years of study. Abundances of dominant deciduous trees have declined dramatically over the 20 years, correlated with a decline in overwinter snowfall. Snowfall can affect overwinter presence of elk, whose browsing can significantly impact deciduous tree abundance. Thus, climate may affect the plant community indirectly through effects on herbivores, but may also act directly by influencing water availability...

    map background search result map search result map Effects of landscape structure on nest predation on roadsides of a mid-western agroecosystem: a multi-scale analysis. Effects of landscape structure on nest predation on roadsides of a mid-western agroecosystem: a multi-scale analysis.