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Abstract?Larval western toads (Bufo boreas) are known to exhibit antipredator behavior in response to both chemical alarm cues released from injured conspecifics and chemical cues of predatory invertebrates. In this study, we tested whether long-term exposure to predator and alarm cues resulted in an adaptive shift in life history characteristics of the toads. We raised groups of tadpoles in the presence of: (1) predatory backswimmers (Notonecta spp.) that were fed toad tadpoles, (2) nonpredatory water boatman (Corixidae), and (3) chemical alarm cues of injured conspecifics. Tadpoles raised in the presence of both chemical alarm cues and cues of predators fed tadpoles metamorphosed in significantly shorter time...
Concern over the status of species associated with prairie dog colonies has increased with the recent proposed listing of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We monitored burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations and prairie dog densities in 17 black-tailed prairie dog colonies in the Nebraska panhandle between 1990 and 1996. All prairie dog colonies were controlled at least once during the study. We observed a 63% decline in nesting pairs of burrowing owls and significant declines in burrow densities. Results indicated a time lag in owl response to changes in active burrow densities. However, in the later years of the study when burrow densities were lowest, owl numbers were positively correlated...
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These data include a row for each duck nest equipped with a small video camera. We present the location of the nest, the timing of the start of hatch, the timing of the end of hatch, and the timing of the departure of the hen and ducklings from the nest. Additionally, this table includes any predators that were observed at the nest depredating eggs prior to hatch and any predators that were observed at the nest between hatch and departure from the nest. These data support the following publication: "Sitting ducklings: Timing of hatch, nest departure, and predation risk for dabbling duck broods" by Sarah H. Peterson, Joshua T. Ackerman, Mark P. Herzog, C. Alex Hartman, Rebecca Croston, Cliff L. Feldheim, and Michael...
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These tables serve as input data for hierarchical models investigating interactions between raven density and Greater Sage-grouse nest success. Observations were recorded over an 11 year time period, spanning from 2009 through 2019. The model is run in JAGS via R, the code is publicly available via the U.S. Geological Survey's GitLab (O'Neil et al. 2023). We recommend not making any changes or edits to the tables unless the user is experienced with hierarchical modeling. References: O'Neil, S.T., Coates, P.S., Webster, S.C., Brussee, B.E., Dettenmaier, S.J., Tull, J.C., Jackson, P.J., Casazza, M.L., and Espinosa, S.P., 2023, Code for a hierarchical model of raven densities linked with sage-grouse nest survival...
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These data were compiled to explore the foraging ecology of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona. These data represent samples characterizing the availability of drifting invertebrate prey (hereafter, drift) and use of these invertebrate prey by rainbow trout determined by gut samples (hereafter, diets). Drift and diet sampling occurred in five distinct reaches downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (river kilometer (rkm) from the dam): (I) rkm 16.3-21.7; (II) rkm 52.8-58.3; (III) rkm 86.6-91.9; (IV) rkm 122.0-123.6; and (V) rkm 127.1-129.6. Samples were taken on 12 trips in April, July, September and January from April 2012 through January 2015. The aquatic prey base consists...
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This data set includes count, location, and ancillary habitat data for fishes sampled in adjacent reaches of Georgiana Slough, Sacramento River, and Steamboat Slough in the northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. It also includes data on the stomach contents of selected individual black basses (Micropterus). Fishes were sampled by boat electrofishing from approximately January-May, 2020-2022, plus gillnetting in 2020. Samples were collected under a stratified random sampling design. Gillnetting involved short duration (~60 minute) sets of monofilament experimental gill nets. Boat electrofishing involved either single or repeated passes along an individual 300 m shoreline transect. Stomach contents data are from fishes...
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Data on intraguild predation of arthropods on the tarweed Hemizonia congesta. Arthropod counts (predators, herbivores, etc) and counts of entrapped arthropod corpses on focal plants in an experiment manipulating arthropod carrion amount and plant damage. Quantifications of plant damage and reproduction are presented. A duplicate digital object identifier (DOI) (https://doi.org/10.5066/F7M044NW) was accidentally published for this resource. The correct DOI for referencing this product is https://doi.org/10.5066/P9PD6HUW.​​​​​​​
The role of biotic interactions in structuring freshwater invertebrate communities has been extensively studied but with mixed results. For example, fish effects on invertebrates are most pronounced in pelagic and soft-sediment benthic habitats that lack structural complexity, yet appear insignificant in benthic rubble habitats. Backwaters of the Green River, Utah, are shallow, structurally simple, quiet-water embayments adjacent to the river. These habitats form in middle to late summer and are colonized by benthic and epibenthic invertebrates that produce standing crops significantly higher than the river. Backwaters are also utilized by a large number of fish species. We used cages to determine if selective exclusion...
Conclusions:Adult mortality appeared to be largely the result of predation, with cougars accounting for half of the known-cause mortalities. The much higher rate of mortality observed in the more developed portion of the study area supports a link between predation and forestry development.Thresholds/Learnings:
Nine Heloderma suspectum were observed between 1 April and 13 July 1979. In April and May, movements of Heloderma were associated with areas where eggs of ground nesting birds were most abundant. During June and July, Heloderma responded to decreasing egg availability by shifting their diets to small mammals and moving onto areas where these prey were most abundant. These shifts are adaptive as Heloderma continually exploit the most abundant prey. Lizards demonstrated a foraging strategy of rarely backtracking and consuming only an average of 46% of the eggs available at each nest. The number of eggs eaten per day by each lizard was positively correlated with lizard weight. Combinations of lizard satiation, reproduction,...
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This data set includes environmental and biological information on fishes collected using gill nets and otter trawls during day and night, as well as diet data for Striped bass and Sacramento pikeminnow obtained via gastric lavage. Sampling took place in and around Ryer Island, Suisun Bay, California during Winter and Spring of 2018.
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Conclusions: Caribou mortalities attributed to wolf predation were generally closer to a corridor, indicating that linear corridors may enhance wolf predation efficiency. Therefore, caribou existing closer to linear corridors are at a higher risk of depredation than those farther from corridors. Thresholds/Learnings: Synopsis: This study tested the hypothesis that linear corridors affect caribou and wolf activities by examining the distribution of telemetry locations of caribou and wolves, as well as locations of caribou mortality and caribou predation by wolves relative to linear corridors caused by roads, seismic lines, power lines, and pipeline rights-of-way. Caribou mortalities attributed to wolf predation...
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Synopsis: This study examines the influence of landscape fragmentation on trophic cascades in southern California. Results indicate that, as habitat fragmentation negatively affects the persistence of coyote populations, the abundance of smaller meso-predators increase, resulting in higher mortality rates in scrub-breeding birds. Fragment size was a strong indicator of coyote abundance, and coyote abundance was a strong indicator of bird diversity, as coyotes kept down the number of meso-predators that prey on birds. The positive effect of fragment area and the negative effect of fragment age were the strongest determinants of bird diversity in this system. Conclusions: Fragment size correlates with coyote abundance,...
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Rasters representing median raven density estimates, calculated from approximately 28,000 raven point count surveys conducted between 2009 and 2019. Estimates were the result of a Bayesian hierarchical distance sampling model, using environmental covariates on detection and abundance.
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These data were compiled to evaluate the potential adverse impacts that stocked trout may have on native fish populaitons through predation. Hatchery-reared rainbow and brown trout are typically fed exclusively on commercially prepared pelleted feeds and have no experience catching or consuming life fish at the time of stocking and yet stocked fish are percieved to present a high predation risk for juvenile native fishes. These data were compiled to allow for a relative comparison of predation effectiveness between hatchery-reared fish and wild fish. Mean numbers of prey fish surviving in replicated overnight laboratory predation trials were quantified.
Tags: Aquatic Biology, Arizona, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Page Springs Fish Hatchery, Big Water, Canyon Creek, All tags...
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Conclusions: Nest predators with different home-range sizes and habitat affinities responded to landscape configuration in different ways. Influence of landscape structure varied across scale. Thresholds/Learnings: Herbaceous cover was negatively associated with predation in roadsides whereas the proximity of woody cover was positively associated with predation rates. Synopsis: This study evaluated the influence of habitat structure and spatial configuration on nest predation in central Iowa. In a multi-scale analysis of 10 artificial ground nests along 136 roadsides across six watersheds, researchers found that predation was affected by the surrounding landscape mosaic. Nest predators with different home-range...
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We combined approximately 28,000 raven point count surveys with data from more than 900 sage-grouse nests between 2009 and 2019 within the Great Basin, USA. We modeled variation in raven density using a Bayesian hierarchical distance sampling approach with environmental covariates on detection and abundance. Concurrently, we modeled sage-grouse nest survival using a hierarchical frailty model as a function of raven density as well as other environmental covariates that influence risk of failure. Raven density commonly exceeded more than 0.5 ravens per square kilometer and increased at low relative elevations with prevalent anthropogenic development and/or agriculture. Reduced sage-grouse nest survival was strongly...
This study demonstratest he correlationo f an arrayo f ecological characteristicsw ith foraging mode in sit-and-wait foraging Crotalus cerastes and widely foraging Masticophis flagellum. Crotalus cerastes are chiefly nocturnal and spend most of their time on the surface either coiled on or partially buried in the sand waiting to ambush prey. Masticophis flagellum are strictly diurnal predators and cruise through the habitat searching for active and sedentary prey. In this study, C. cerastes averaged 7.2 ? 0.7 (SE) h/day on the surface, almost twice the time of M. flagellum (3.9 ? 0.9 h/day). Body temperatures (Tb's) of active M. flagellum, determined from surgically implanted radio transmitters, were significantly...
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These data were compiled to evaluate the potential impact various environmental conditions may have on native fish populaitons through predation. Introduced warm-water sport fishes present a high predation risk for juvenile native fishes, but observations of juvenile native fish surviving and recruiting in some rare cases led us to question what environmental conditions might be responsible for these trends. These data were compiled to allow for a relative comparison of predation effectiveness between a suite of warm-water predators under a variety of environmental conditions. Mean numbers of prey fish surviving in replicated overnight laboratory predation trials were quantified.
Frog eggs of three different species were presented to giant apple snails (Pomacea maculata) to determine if the snails will eat the eggs. There were four treatments: control (eggs in water only); control with lettuce (eggs in water and lettuce which was used as snail food); snail (eggs in water with snail); and snail with lettuce (eggs in water with snails and lettuce as an alternative food for the snail). Eggs were counted at the start and end of the experiment, and if an egg hatched to a tadpole, the tadpoles were counted as un-eaten eggs.


map background search result map search result map Distribution of caribou and wolves in relation to linear corridors Effects of landscape structure on nest predation on roadsides of a mid-western agroecosystem: a multi-scale analysis. Mesopredator release and avifaunal extinctions in a fragmented system. Hatchery Trout Predation Data, Arizona Laboratory Predation Data (various nonnative warm-water sport fishes), Arizona Intraguild predation dataset for arthropods on tarweed plants The timing of dabbling duckling hatch, nest departure and depredation in Suisun Marsh, California from 2015-2017 Diets of Striped bass and Sacramento pikeminnow at Ryer Island, Suisun Bay, California, 2018 Rainbow trout diet and invertebrate drift data from 2012-2015 for the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona Distribution and stomach contents of fishes in the northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, 2020-2022 Data to Support Hierarchical Models and Decision Support Maps to Guide Management of Subsidized Avian Predator Densities Median Estimates of Raven Density in California, Nevada, and Idaho (2012 - 2019) Raven Observations near Greater Sage-Grouse Nests in the Great Basin and Bi-State Regions of the Western United States (2009 - 2019) Diets of Striped bass and Sacramento pikeminnow at Ryer Island, Suisun Bay, California, 2018 The timing of dabbling duckling hatch, nest departure and depredation in Suisun Marsh, California from 2015-2017 Distribution and stomach contents of fishes in the northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, 2020-2022 Intraguild predation dataset for arthropods on tarweed plants Hatchery Trout Predation Data, Arizona Rainbow trout diet and invertebrate drift data from 2012-2015 for the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona Distribution of caribou and wolves in relation to linear corridors Laboratory Predation Data (various nonnative warm-water sport fishes), Arizona Effects of landscape structure on nest predation on roadsides of a mid-western agroecosystem: a multi-scale analysis. Data to Support Hierarchical Models and Decision Support Maps to Guide Management of Subsidized Avian Predator Densities Median Estimates of Raven Density in California, Nevada, and Idaho (2012 - 2019) Raven Observations near Greater Sage-Grouse Nests in the Great Basin and Bi-State Regions of the Western United States (2009 - 2019) Mesopredator release and avifaunal extinctions in a fragmented system.