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Wolf, Canis lupus, recolonization of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem provides a rare opportunity to identify behaviours facilitating coexistence between sympatric canids. We investigated interactions between coyotes, Canis latrans, and recolonizing wolves at ungulate carcasses in Montana's Madison Range. We used a field-experimental study design consisting of a two-level carcass treatment (wolf presence, wolf absence) to assess factors influencing coyote risk assessment, carrion consumption and aggressive encounters with wolves. Socially dominant coyotes (alphas and betas) responded to wolf presence by increasing the proportion of time spent vigilant while scavenging. Vigilance behaviour was more pronounced when...
The reintroduction of gray wolves to Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provides a natural experiment regarding the effects of top predators on scavenger species. Fieldwork on the Northern Range of Yellowstone indicates that wolves facilitate carrion acquisition by scavengers, but it is unclear whether this represents a transient or permanent effect of wolf reintroduction. Here we present a wolf-elk model with human elk harvest and use it to investigate the long-term consequences of predator?prey dynamics and hunting on resource flow to scavengers. Our model shows that while wolves reduce the total amount of carrion, they stabilize carrion abundance by reducing temporal variation in the quantity of carrion and extending...