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Long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies for the Netherlands were studied, using a MARKAL energy model. The EMS study identifies longterm technological options for greenhouse gas emission reduction and assesses their cost-effectiveness, taking interactions between technologies into account. The project consisted of three parts: carbon dioxyde (CO 2) emission reduction in the energy system, integrated reduction of greenhouse gases from the energy system with consideration of upstream emissions and CO 2 reduction in the integrated energy and materials system. 500 energy technologies were assessed for their reduction potential. Significant emission reduction seems possible, but it takes an array of measures...
This study deals with modeling and analyzing the performance of greenhouses from the power plant through the heating system to the greenhouse envelope using exergy analysis method, the so-called low exergy or LowEx approach, which has been and still being successfully used in sustainable buildings design, for the first time to the best of the author’s knowledge. For the heating applications, three options are studied with (i) a solar assisted vertical ground-source heat pump greenhouse heating system, (ii) a wood biomass boiler, and (iii) a natural gas boiler, which are driven by renewable and non-renewable energy sources. In this regard, two various greenhouses, the so-called small greenhouse and large greenhouse,...
By replacing fossil fuels bioenergy has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but indirect effects might partly or even completely eliminate this benefit. Production of bio-energy products, such as biofuels for transport, causes several indirect effects through their interactions with the global economic and physical systems. Indirect land-use change leads to GHG emissions – in some cases in the same order of magnitude as the fossil emissions – and loss of nature, but there are other relevant indirect effects as well. Intensification of agricultural production is another indirect effect and could be stimulated more to minimise the undesirable land conversion. However, intensification through increased...
The success of carbon capture, storage and sequestration as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy will be, in part, dependent on the regulatory framework used to govern its implementation. Creating a science-based regulatory framework that is designed with enough flexibility to encourage greenhouse gas offset activity, effective means of measuring the costs of taking action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and ample protection for human and ecosystem health may prove challenging. For the purposes of this paper we will assume that there is an existing incentive to capture, store and sequester carbon and focus on how to regulate the process. Accounting practices and precursory crediting rules for biological sinks...
This article underlines the main implications of the interrelations between the energy problem and that of environmental pollution, using the most widely used macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis. In fact, carbon dioxide (CO2) emission intensity and energy intensity trends may be used to highlight the most important features of economic development over a given time scale in a variety of different countries. The empirical analysis proposed here—covering a time-span of some 40 years in a number of the most highly industrialised nations—seems to be useful if we are to understand the main similarities and differences in the interaction between the energy choices made by different countries and their...
This article underlines the main implications of the interrelations between the energy problem and that of environmental pollution, using the most widely used macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis. In fact, carbon dioxide (CO2) emission intensity and energy intensity trends may be used to highlight the most important features of economic development over a given time scale in a variety of different countries. The empirical analysis proposed here—covering a time-span of some 40 years in a number of the most highly industrialised nations—seems to be useful if we are to understand the main similarities and differences in the interaction between the energy choices made by different countries and their...
This article underlines the main implications of the interrelations between the energy problem and that of environmental pollution, using the most widely used macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis. In fact, carbon dioxide (CO2) emission intensity and energy intensity trends may be used to highlight the most important features of economic development over a given time scale in a variety of different countries. The empirical analysis proposed here—covering a time-span of some 40 years in a number of the most highly industrialised nations—seems to be useful if we are to understand the main similarities and differences in the interaction between the energy choices made by different countries and their...
By replacing fossil fuels bioenergy has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but indirect effects might partly or even completely eliminate this benefit. Production of bio-energy products, such as biofuels for transport, causes several indirect effects through their interactions with the global economic and physical systems. Indirect land-use change leads to GHG emissions – in some cases in the same order of magnitude as the fossil emissions – and loss of nature, but there are other relevant indirect effects as well. Intensification of agricultural production is another indirect effect and could be stimulated more to minimise the undesirable land conversion. However, intensification through increased...
Natural gas plays a key role in our nation’s clean energy future. Recent advances in drilling technologies—including horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing—have made vast reserves of natural gas economically recoverable in the US. Responsible development of America’s oil and gas resources offers important economic, energy security, and environmental benefits. Hydraulic fracturing is a well stimulation technique used to maximize production of oil and natural gas in unconventional reservoirs, such as shale, coalbeds, and tight sands. During hydraulic fracturing, specially engineered fluids containing chemical additives and proppant are pumped under high pressure into the well to create and hold open fractures...
Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, and enhanced oil and gas recovery have a clear role in U.S. energy policy, both in securing cost-effective energy and reducing atmospheric CO2 accumulations. Recent publicity surrounding induced seismicity at several geothermal and oil and gas sites points out the need to develop improved standards and practices to avoid issues that may unduly inhibit or stop the above technologies from fulfilling their full potential. It is critical that policy makers and the general community be assured that EGS, CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil/gas recovery, and other technologies relying on fluid injections, will be designed to reduce induced seismicity to an acceptable level, and be developed...
A visual impact evaluation method specifically designed to assess landscape alteration as a result of surface mining and quarrying would represent a fundamental aid for both those involved in the early stages of mine planning and design (mining companies) and those in charge of controlling and verifying environmental impacts (government authorities). This research is based on implementation of the visual impact indicator Lvi, which takes into account two parameters among those physically measurable: the extent of visible alteration in the landscape and the chromatic contrast between bare rock and the surrounding environment. Both parameters can be quantified by processing one or more digital images taken from the...
During the past three years, working with more than 150 organizations representing public and private stakeholders, EPRI has developed the Electricity Technology Roadmap. The Roadmap identifies several major strategic challenges that must be successfully addressed to ensure a sustainable future in which electricity continues to play an important role in economic growth. Articulation of these anticipated trends and challenges requires a detailed understanding of the role and importance of reliable electricity in different sectors of the economy. This report is intended to contribute to that understanding by analyzing key aspects of trends in the economic value of electricity reliability in the U.S. economy. We first...
Research performed at the AB-DLO and the Free University was intended to quantify the effects of a doubled CO2 concentration on some key agronomic species and grasslands. A set of physiological and morphological processes was studied and related to above- and below ground cycling of carbon. The research was based on experiments and simulation studies at the level of plant, crop and soil in laboratory facilities and semi-field conditions with controlled CO2 supply. Agricultural crops were grown in "Open Top Chambers" or greenhouses and grasses in transparent tunnels made of Lexan. Soil processes and root respiration were studied in the Wageningen Rhizolab. Photosynthesis and assimilate partitioning were measured...
Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in depleted oil reservoirs is one of the viable options for carbon management. This paper describes the preliminary modeling and flow simulation part of a DOE sponsored CO2 sequestration project. The main objective of the project is to understand the feasibility of long term sequestration of CO2 in a depleted oil reservoir through a field demonstration experiment. Before the actual CO2 injection begins, it was necessary to determine feasibility of injection. Advanced geologic modeling and flow simulation techniques were used to develop a model for the proposed target interval. A geologic model was developed using data available from well logs and cores. Subsequently, porous...
Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in depleted oil reservoirs is one of the viable options for carbon management. This paper describes the preliminary modeling and flow simulation part of a DOE sponsored CO2 sequestration project. The main objective of the project is to understand the feasibility of long term sequestration of CO2 in a depleted oil reservoir through a field demonstration experiment. Before the actual CO2 injection begins, it was necessary to determine feasibility of injection. Advanced geologic modeling and flow simulation techniques were used to develop a model for the proposed target interval. A geologic model was developed using data available from well logs and cores. Subsequently, porous...
Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in depleted oil reservoirs is one of the viable options for carbon management. This paper describes the preliminary modeling and flow simulation part of a DOE sponsored CO2 sequestration project. The main objective of the project is to understand the feasibility of long term sequestration of CO2 in a depleted oil reservoir through a field demonstration experiment. Before the actual CO2 injection begins, it was necessary to determine feasibility of injection. Advanced geologic modeling and flow simulation techniques were used to develop a model for the proposed target interval. A geologic model was developed using data available from well logs and cores. Subsequently, porous...
This article underlines the main implications of the interrelations between the energy problem and that of environmental pollution, using the most widely used macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis. In fact, carbon dioxide (CO2) emission intensity and energy intensity trends may be used to highlight the most important features of economic development over a given time scale in a variety of different countries. The empirical analysis proposed here—covering a time-span of some 40 years in a number of the most highly industrialised nations—seems to be useful if we are to understand the main similarities and differences in the interaction between the energy choices made by different countries and their...
A visual impact evaluation method specifically designed to assess landscape alteration as a result of surface mining and quarrying would represent a fundamental aid for both those involved in the early stages of mine planning and design (mining companies) and those in charge of controlling and verifying environmental impacts (government authorities). This research is based on implementation of the visual impact indicator Lvi, which takes into account two parameters among those physically measurable: the extent of visible alteration in the landscape and the chromatic contrast between bare rock and the surrounding environment. Both parameters can be quantified by processing one or more digital images taken from the...
During the past three years, working with more than 150 organizations representing public and private stakeholders, EPRI has developed the Electricity Technology Roadmap. The Roadmap identifies several major strategic challenges that must be successfully addressed to ensure a sustainable future in which electricity continues to play an important role in economic growth. Articulation of these anticipated trends and challenges requires a detailed understanding of the role and importance of reliable electricity in different sectors of the economy. This report is intended to contribute to that understanding by analyzing key aspects of trends in the economic value of electricity reliability in the U.S. economy. We first...
In a field experiment we attempted to stimulate car users to come to a more selective use of their vehicle by means of providing information and feedback about different negative consequences of their car use. Attitude change was observed but the experimental treatments did not lead to behavioural changes. Attempts to influence car use arouse psychological resistance. Therefore, effects opposite to those intended occurred. We discuss the possible implications of the results for policymaking.