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The data in this release describe various aspects of the impacts of urbanization on evapotranspiration at local to global spatial scales. This data release is associated with the publication of these results in a concurrent journal article. Analyses in the journal article included comparisons between urban and non-urban ET in a variety of climate settings and spatial scales. Urbanization has been shown to locally increase the nighttime temperatures creating urban heat islands, which partly arise due to evapotranspiration (ET) reduction. It is unclear how the direction and magnitude of the change in local ET due to urbanization varies globally across different climatic regimes. This knowledge gap is critical, both...
Despite the relationship between urbanization, energy use and CO2 emissions has been extensively studied in recent years, little attention has been paid to differences in development stages or income levels. Most previous studies have implicitly assumed that the impact of urbanization is homogenous for all countries. This assumption can be questionable as there are many characteristic differences among countries of different levels of affluence. This paper investigates empirically the effects of urbanization on energy use and CO2 emissions with consideration of the different development stages. Using the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model and a balanced panel...
The cumulative effects problem in natural resource management and land use planning stems from the difficulty of demonstrating that while each single land use change results in a negligible impact, the accumulation of these individual changes over time and within a landscape or region may constitute a major impact. This paper details a general approach to estimate the cumulative effects of land use change on wildlife habitat using Summit County, CO, USA as a case study. Our approach is based on a functional relationship between effect on habitat and distance from development. Within this building-effect distance, habitat is assumed to be degraded, producing a disturbance zone. We sum the total area within the disturbance...
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The file "Chloride_specific_conductance_regression_model_forms_for_estimating_high-frequency_chloride_concentrations.csv" contains the regression equation forms for two types of regressions: 1) single linear (SLR) and 2) piecewise (or segmented; SEG) regression between specific conductance (SC) and chloride (Cl) concentrations for 56 USGS water-quality monitoring stations across the eastern United States, plus four regional regressions developed by pooling data for sites within a region (see Moore and others (in review) for more information). Some sites, and all regions, have both SLR and SEG models reported in this table. The analysis included in the Moore and others (in review) study used results from the SLR...
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This data set contains links that are important to each species' habitat network. Those important links are scored based on the percent currently under protection status, projected change in climate suitability by the middle of the 21st century, and projected change in percent urbanized by the middle of the 21st century. Important links were identified from all links in the networks of each species based on their Integral Index of Connectivity (dIIC). Any links with dIIC scores > 0.9 or which connected to nodes with dIIC > 0.9 were retained here as "important" links.
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Physical and chemical changes affect the biota within urban streams at varying scales ranging from individual organisms to populations and communities creating complex interactions that present challenges for characterizing and monitoring the impact on species utilizing these freshwater habitats. Salmonids, specifically cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), extensively utilize small stream habitats influenced by a changing urban landscape. This study used a comprehensive fish health assessment concurrent with the U.S. Geological Survey’s Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment in 2015 to quantifiy impacts from disease in juvenile coho and cutthroat salmon, impacts to...
The dataset summarizes total area (km2) and proportion of Central Valley waterbird habitat, summed across individual waterbird habitats (i.e., wetland and cropland types), that was available for each of 17 projected scenarios. The dataset also includes relatively recent (year 2005) area of existing habitat (i.e., “existing area”) for comparison with areas based on scenarios. Analysis was conducted for the projection period including water-years 2006–2099 (water-year defined as October-December and January–September of the following year). Because habitat areas vary through the season with timing of crop harvest and flooding of wetlands and post-harvested fields, annual areas and proportions represent summation...
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This product consists of time-series calculations of anthropogenic characteristics derived for 16 data themes for multiple scales covering the conterminous United States. The characteristics are those which (a) have consistent data sources, and (b) have the potential to affect the water quality of streams and rivers. All 16 data themes are provided for Hydrologic Unit Code level-10 (HUC-10) boundaries (n = 15,458). Additionally, measures of land use and imperviousness are provided for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Level 4 ecoregions (n = 967) and for U.S. counties (n = 3,109). The data may be scaled up to broader areas; that is, HUC-10 data may be scaled up to HUC-8, 6, 4, or HUC-2 areas, Level 4...
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Policy-relevant flood risk modeling must capture interactions between physical and social processes to accurately project impacts from scenarios of sea level rise and inland flooding due to climate change. Here we simultaneously model urban growth, flood hazard change, and adaptive response using the FUTure Urban-Regional Environment Simulation (FUTURES) version 3 framework (Sanchez et al., 2023). FUTURES is an open source urban growth model designed to address the regional-scale ecological and environmental impacts of urbanization; it is one of the few land change models that explicitly captures the spatial structure of development in response to user-specified scenarios. We present probabilistic land change projections...
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The PFLCC has recently completed a set of comprehensive conservation planning scenarios for the state of Florida. This represents the first statewide effort to assess likely alternative futures for conservation considering an array of financial, biological, climatological and urbanistic conditions. These spatially explicit and temporal scenarios simulate both urban growth and climate change and identify the most suitable areas for conservation given the resulting land use pattern. Conservation allocations are based on both fee-title and conservation easements.The conservation priorities and mechanisms expressed in these scenarios are based on a wide set of contributing factors, and simulated conservation is purposefully...
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The PFLCC has recently completed a set of comprehensive conservation planning scenarios for the state of Florida. This represents the first statewide effort to assess likely alternative futures for conservation considering an array of financial, biological, climatological and urbanistic conditions. These spatially explicit and temporal scenarios simulate both urban growth and climate change and identify the most suitable areas for conservation given the resulting land use pattern. Conservation allocations are based on both fee-title and conservation easements.The conservation priorities and mechanisms expressed in these scenarios are based on a wide set of contributing factors, and simulated conservation is purposefully...
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The GeoAdaptive and GeoDesign scenarios were extended to the state of Florida line and incorporated CLIP 3.0 into the scenarios for the ecological input. The scenarios will consist of urbanization level of 31,000,000 people by 2060 and sea level rise of 1.0m, and policies and assumptions such a build first conserve second (BAU) and conserve first build second (proactive). The type of conservation was varied; fee simple purchase and easement percentages. The first scenario had a 50/50 split between fee simple purchase and easements and the second and third scenario had 90% easement and 10% fee simple purchase. The difference in scenario was in the process of conservation (CLIP priority area 1 or Florida Forever land...
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For more information about how these data were developed, please see the final report. Expert opinion was used to define a resistance surface for each of the target animals, with higher resistance representing map units expected to be more difficult and more dangerous for species to move through. A set of nodes for each species, with node points indicating center locations for potential source populations for the species, are also defined. Note actual species population data to define the nodes is not used, as that data was often unavailable, and the focus is on the potential spread of the species across the SALCC region and not limited to models to known populations. Therefore, node locations were determined by...
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This data set includes estimated chloride concentrations for the 93 USGS water quality monitoring stations located across the eastern United States. Chloride concentrations were predicted using regression equations that established the relationship between simultaneous measurements of chloride and specific conductance (SC). Site-specific models were developed and applied when data were available, and regional regression models were used where there were insufficient data available to establish a site-specific regression model. These models were applied to high-frequency SC data sets to produce high-frequency predicted chloride concentrations at 2-minute to 1-hour intervals, depending on the frequency at which SC...
This paper approximates the emissions rebound effects' associated with substituting expensive and GHG emitting natural gas (LNG) power plants, with apparently cheaper and lower emitting nuclear plant. It then evaluates the effect this has on economy wide electricity use as well as net GHG emissions changes. The analysis is undertaken by combining aspects of an input-output model with an optimizing energy systems model. The scope of the case study is limited to the effects of the electricity sector (and its emissions) on the Korean economy from 2005 to 2030. Its primary basis (in terms of data and assumptions) is the recent national Basic Plan for Long-Term Electricity Supply and Demand (KPX, 2006).(2) The cases...
Observations (reduced to detected/not detected) of 45 vertebrate species (seven mammals, seven amphibians, and 31 reptiles) across Southern California pitfall sampling projects conducted between 1995 through 2015. Habitat patch locations of every pitfall sampling project presented in a shapefile. Habitat patches were measured based on the size when pitfall sampling began within each. Sampling projects within the same geographic area may have different sized patches based on date of project sampling and if patch erosion occurred. A matrix of whether each species was expected within each habitat patch's species pool based on range maps and published records is also included. These data support the following publication:...
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The connectivity result files from Circuitscape represent the "adjusted cumulative current density" flowing across the landscape for each of several species, at a 90-meter resolution across the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative region. Rasters are classified using quantiles with 20 categories (each 5% of region) to integer scores from 1-20. 1 = lowest 5% of the landscape, 20= top 5% of landscape Expert opinion was used to define a resistance surface for each of the target animals, with higher resistance representing map units expected to be more difficult and dangerous for species to move through. A set of nodes for each species, with node points indicating center locations for potential source populations,...
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The PFLCC has recently completed a set of comprehensive conservation planning scenarios for the state of Florida. This represents the first statewide effort to assess likely alternative futures for conservation considering an array of financial, biological, climatological and urbanistic conditions. These spatially explicit and temporal scenarios simulate both urban growth and climate change and identify the most suitable areas for conservation given the resulting land use pattern. Conservation allocations are based on both fee-title and conservation easements.The conservation priorities and mechanisms expressed in these scenarios are based on a wide set of contributing factors, and simulated conservation is purposefully...
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This dataset is based on the output from a project funded by the California Landscape Conservation Cooperative: “Decision support for climate change adaptation and fire management strategies for at risk species in southern California”. The potential distribution of Ceanothus greggii was modeled using a MaxEnt species distribution model using recent and future climate data with presence records from the San Diego Natural History Museum. Species distributions were modeled only for the South Coast Ecoregion in California, USA as this is where management options and climate change adaptation possibilities are currently being examined for the species. Recent climate data were based on the Parameter-Elevation Regressions...
Abstract (from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0142031): Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees ( Apis mellifera Linnaeus), the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization...


map background search result map search result map Black Bear Connectivity Eastern Cougar Connectivity Projected climate change and urbanization impacts on the distribution of Ceanothus greggii Florida climate change, urbanization, and policy assumption scenario for conservation planning for the PFLCC. Important links for Black bear, Rafinesque's big-eared bat, and timber rattlesnake Evaluating Coho Salmon in Streams Across an Urbanization Gradient—Part 1, Growth Potential Based on Environmental Factors and Bioenergetics Data Products Habitat Grids Statewide Impact Assessment Reports Changes in anthropogenic influences on streams and rivers in the conterminous U.S. over the last 40 years, derived for 16 data themes Estimated high-frequency chloride concentrations Chloride-specific conductance regression model forms for estimating high-frequency chloride concentrations Urbanization Impacts on Evapotranspiration Across Various Spatio-temporal Scales Species Observations from Pitfall Trap Arrays, Species Pool Matrices, and Patch Locations in Southern California from 1995-2015 FUTURES v3: Scenarios of Future Patterns of Urbanization in Response to Sea Level Rise and Frequent Flooding Across the Southeast United States from 2020 to 2100 Projected climate change and urbanization impacts on the distribution of Ceanothus greggii Species Observations from Pitfall Trap Arrays, Species Pool Matrices, and Patch Locations in Southern California from 1995-2015 Evaluating Coho Salmon in Streams Across an Urbanization Gradient—Part 1, Growth Potential Based on Environmental Factors and Bioenergetics Florida climate change, urbanization, and policy assumption scenario for conservation planning for the PFLCC. Data Products Habitat Grids Statewide Impact Assessment Reports Black Bear Connectivity Eastern Cougar Connectivity Estimated high-frequency chloride concentrations Chloride-specific conductance regression model forms for estimating high-frequency chloride concentrations Important links for Black bear, Rafinesque's big-eared bat, and timber rattlesnake FUTURES v3: Scenarios of Future Patterns of Urbanization in Response to Sea Level Rise and Frequent Flooding Across the Southeast United States from 2020 to 2100 Changes in anthropogenic influences on streams and rivers in the conterminous U.S. over the last 40 years, derived for 16 data themes Urbanization Impacts on Evapotranspiration Across Various Spatio-temporal Scales