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Description of Work This spring (2014) we will measure Asian carp eDNA over time at a Missouri River site downstream of multiple spawning areas before and during spawning. We will measure the amount of Asian carp eDNA in water samples. The amount of eDNA will be related to the numbers of eggs and larvae counted in matched samples (water samples taken at the same time and place). The time since the eDNA was released by the carp will be estimated and these results will be related to the average age of AC eggs and larvae in matched samples. We will also test for substances which interfere with the eDNA measurement techniques and can lead to false negatives. We will also be validating markers developed by USGS and...
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Description of Work In separate studies, bighead carp and silver carp were raised in waters of varying hardness. Survival, correct development, and hatching success were monitored. Additionally, a search of the Asian literature (including Chinese-language literature) on water hardness in areas where Asian carp are native was performed. Relevance & Impact If soft water limits Asian carp hatching success, then this would mean that large areas of the Great Lakes and east and west coast drainages would not be at risk of Asian carp establishment. Key Findings Both bighead carp and silver carp developed normally and the eggs hatched normally in all water hardnesses tested, including very soft water. The Yangtze River,...
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There is an immediate need for effective and safe tools to prevent the spread of planktonic larval dreissenids (quagga Dreissena rostriformis bugensis and zebra mussels D. polymorpha) and to rehabilitate and protect native unionid habitats by controlling existing dreissenid mussel populations in and around the Great Lakes. More than half of the 78 native unionid species in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio are listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Although the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) considers zebra mussels to be an immediate threat to freshwater unionids in the Upper Mississippi River System, there is no effective tool to control established zebra...
Locks and dams are possible management points to block the spread of invasive Asian carps in the United States. Infusion of carbon dioxide (CO2) into water is one deterrent strategy being considered at navigational structures to reduce upstream fish passage that would not directly interfere with lock and dam operations. The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of CO2 as a behavioral deterrent to free-swimming fishes. Telemetered bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were monitored within a U-shaped pond (30.5 m long x 13.7 m wide x 1 m deep) using a two-dimensional acoustic telemetry array. Gaseous CO2 was administered to one-half of the pond at 30, 75, or...
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Description of Work This work began by assembling fish toxicant data into a common database and examining the database for trends in toxicant data. The trends found in the toxicant database were linked to physiochemical properties of the individual toxicants. Combining the toxicant trends with the physiochemical properties may allow for the prediction of toxicity and the identification of chemicals with selectivity for the Asian carp. Identifying a selective toxicant may provide control of Asian carps while minimizing effects on other non-target aquatic species. When Asian carp specific toxicants are identified from the initial screen within the database these toxicants are then further screened in toxicity assays...
There is growing interest in the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a management tool for controlling invasive fishes. However, there is limited published data on susceptibility of many commonly encountered species to elevated CO2 concentrations. Our objective was to estimate the 24-h LC50 and LC95 of four fishes (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Common Carp Cyprinus Carpio, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi). In the laboratory, we exposed fingerlings to a range of levels of CO2 for 24-h in unpressurized, flow-through tanks. A Bayesian hierarchical model was developed to estimate the dose response relationship for each species of fish with associated uncertainty,...
This dataset includes laboratory data collected to determine the effects of hydrogen peroxide on nitrification processes in biofilters of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Data from the laboratory studies were used to inform methods used to conduct field trials in pilot- and commercial-scale RAS. Biofilter nitrification was monitored by measuring the levels of total ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in experimental aquaria containing a small biofilter before and after hydrogen peroxide was applied to the test system. There are 4 excel workbooks associated with this data set: RASHP Range finding Trial.csv, RASHP Definitive Trial.csv, Hydrogen Peroxide Lab Studies.csv, and DO after HP...
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Description of Work Hydroacoustic surveys were used to characterize the distribution of fish within the backwater before, during and after the addition of algal feeding attractants, establishment of a water gun barrier and commercial fishing activities. Algal feeding attractants were injected at predetermined locations in the backwater to attract and concentrate Asian carp in the closed portion of the backwater. Nine days after the first algal feeding attractant was added, a water gun barrier was established at the narrowest location on the backwater. The water gun barrier was established about 14 hours before commercial fishers began 3 consecutive days of carp removal; the water gun barrier operated continuously...
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Description of Work The field portion of a method validation study was completed August 2015. The study was designed to test the accuracy of a LAMP method to detect eDNA of Asian carps during simulated fish transport. During the study, more than 10,000 minnows were held in each of three fish transport tanks. Ten 4-inch silver carp were placed in one tank, a single 4-inch silver carp in the second tank while the third tank had no silver carp and served as a negative control. The LAMP method used amplifies the DNA of both bighead carp and silver carp. Three replicate trials were completed on separate days with side-by-side analyses completed by three novice and two expert users. Expert users had extensive experience...
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Description of Work Water guns are being placed in backwater habitats where bighead carp and silver carp currently are to see if they can be used to deny fish access to these preferred off-channel habitats or trap them in areas where they can be captured and removed. The energy emitted from water guns is being measured to determine the risk associated with water gun operation near navigation structures. These research topics are being investigated under laboratory (USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, WI) and field conditions (for example, a backwater area of the Illinois River near Morris, IL). Relevance & Impact If water guns alter the behavior of bighead carp or silver carp then they...
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Description of Work Studies assessing seasonal and spatial changes in digestive enzymes and gill raker morphology in bigheaded carps and native planktivorous fishes have been completed. Results indicate that bigheaded carps feed earlier in the year than native filter-feeding fishes and that certain digestive enzymes present in bigheaded carps are either not present in some native fishes or are much less active in the native species than in bigheaded carps. Results also indicate that the gill raker morphology of bigheaded carps is relatively constant with minimal seasonally or spatially relevant changes unlike that of the native gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) which had both seasonal and spatially correlated changes...
Spreadsheets include data that was used to evaluate the efficacy of dry ice administered under-ice as a tool for reducing the overwinter survival of invasive carps. There are 10 CSV associated with this study