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Like many other species, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) have declined substantially relative to historic conditions, and many existing populations are isolated. To inform conservation and restoration efforts for stream-resident cutthroat trout, I built a stage-structured stochastic simulation model to explore the dynamics of populations in isolation or connected by immigration. Relatively small increases in carrying capacity substantially reduced extinction risk in small, isolated populations. In the sensitivity matrix, the two most important elements affecting population growth rate were the survival of subadults that became reproductively mature the next year and the survival of young-of-the-year fish....