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Synopsis: This study evaluates whether previous observations of a higher percentage of parasitism and parasitoid diversity in a complex agricultural landscape, relative to a simple landscape, represent a general phenomenon. Rates of parasitism and parasitoid diversity of the armyworm (Pseudaletia unipuncta) were assessed in three replicate (Onondaga, Ingham, and Benton) regions in southern Michigan. Within each region, a simple landscape (primarily cropland) and a complex landscape (cropland intermixed with mid and late successional noncrop habitats) were identified through analysis of aerial photographs. In each landscape, three maize fields were selected, and second to fourth instar P. unipuncta were released...
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To understand how fisheries affect parasites, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that contrasted parasite assemblages in fished and unfished areas. Parasite diversity was lower in hosts from fished areas. Larger hosts had a greater abundance of parasites, suggesting that fishing might reduce the abundance of parasites by selectively removing the largest, most heavily parasitized individuals. After controlling for size, the effect of fishing on parasite abundance varied according to whether the host was fished and the parasite's life cycle. Parasites of unfished hosts were more likely to increase in abundance in response to fishing than were parasites of fished hosts, possibly due to compensatory increases in...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Parasitology
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Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Parasitology
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Native Hawaiian forest birds are facing a major extinction crisis with more than 75% of species recorded in historical times either extinct or endangered. Reasons for this catastrophe include habitat destruction, competition with non-native species, and introduction of predators and avian diseases. We tested susceptibility of Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea), a declining native species, and Nutmeg Mannikins (Lonchura punctulata), a common non-native species, to an isolate of Plasmodium relictum from the island of Hawaii. Food consumption, weight, and parasitaemia were monitored in juvenile Iiwi that were infected by either single (low-dose) or multiple (high-dose) mosquito bites. Mortality in both groups was significantly...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Parasitology
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Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Parasitology
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1. A fungus disease of epidemic proportions was found in the common sea herring (Clupea harengus) throughout the Gulf of Maine. 2. The fungus was also found to infect the common winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and the alewife (Pomobolus pseudoharengus). 3. The causative agent was found to be a species of fungus belonging to the genus Ichthyosporidium Caullery and Mesnil (1905). The specific name is tentatively accepted as hoferi Plehn and Muslow (1911). 4. The organism is believed to be a normal parasite to the herring and reaches epidemic proportions only when certain unknown factors are operative. 5. The causative organism was found in herring preserved in 1926, and it is believed that the epidemic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Parasitology
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Next-generation 454 sequencing techniques were used to re-examine diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b lineages of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawaii. We document a minimum of 23 variant lineages of the parasite based on single nucleotide transitional changes, in addition to the previously reported single lineage (GRW4). A new, publicly available portal (Integroomer) was developed for initial parsing of 454 datasets. Mean variant prevalence and frequency was higher in low elevation Hawaii Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) with Avipoxvirus-like lesions (P = 0·001), suggesting that the variants may be biologically distinct. By contrast, variant prevalence and frequency did not differ significantly among mid-elevation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Parasitology
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Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Parasitology


    map background search result map search result map Does agricultural landscape structure affect parasistism and parasitoid diversity? Does agricultural landscape structure affect parasistism and parasitoid diversity?