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An experimental system for sampling trace gas fluxes through seasonal snowpack was deployed at a subalpine site near treeline at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. The sampling manifold was in place throughout the entire snow-covered season for continuous air sampling with minimal disturbance to the snowpack. A series of gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds) was determined in interstitial air withdrawn at eight heights in and above the snowpack at ~hourly intervals. In this paper, carbon dioxide data from 2007 were used for evaluation of this technique. Ancillary data recorded inlcuded snow physical properties, i.e., temperature, pressure, and density. Various vertical...
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This collection of layers includes summary statistics from input and output data used for simulation of vegetation response to climate change in California. The historical data layers represent the 30 year period from 1961 to 1990. Future data layers represent each four 20 year periods: 2010-2029, 2030-2049, 2060-2079, and 2080-2099. The simulations were performed using MC1 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), source code revision 152. The model was parameterized and evaluated by the DGVM research group at the US Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, with support from the Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Center. The model was parameterized to maximize concordance with maps of potential...
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Ground-based discrete snowpack measurements were collected during winter field campaigns starting in 2020. These data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Next Generation Water Observing System (NGWOS) Upper Colorado River Basin project focusing on the relation between snow dynamics and water resources. This data release consists of three child items. Each child item contains snow depth, snow density, snow temperature, or snow water equivalent values measured discretely in the field. The data are provided in comma separated value (CSV) files.
This project gallery includes all project reports and associated assessment materials, including interactive and downloadable connectivity and climate datasets for the project " Creating Practitioner-driven, Science-based Plans for Connectivity Conservation in a Changing Climate: A Collaborative Assessment of Climate-Connectivity Needs in the Washington-British Columbia Transboundary Region".
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This data release contains historical SnowModel (Liston and Elder, 2006) output for the Crown of the Continent and surrounding areas in Montana and Idaho, USA; and Alberta and British Columbia, Canada from September 1, 1981 through August 31, 2020. Fifteen daily variables were simulated or derived for this release: (1) snow water equivalent (swed), (2) liquid precipitation (rpre), (3) solid precipitation (spre), (4) albedo (albd), (5) glacial ice melt (glmt), (6) total precipitation (prec), (7) runoff (roff), (8) snow covered area (sca), (9) snow density (sden), (10) snowmelt (smlt), (11) snow depth (snod), (12) snow sublimation (ssub), (13) air temperature (tair), (14) wind speed (wspd), and (15) wind direction...
The fundamental rationale for statistical downscaling is that the raw outputs of climate change experiments from General Circulation Models (GCMs) are an inadequate basis for assessing the effects of climate change on land-surface processes at regional scales. This is because the spatial resolution of GCMs is too coarse to resolve important sub-grid scale processes (most notably those pertaining to the hydrological cycle) and because GCM output is often unreliable at individual and sub-grid box scales. By establishing empirical relationships between grid-box scale circulation indices (such as atmospheric vorticity and divergence) and sub-grid scale surface predictands (such as precipitation), statistical downscaling...
Abstract (from http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0199.1): Future snowfall and snowpack changes over the mountains of Southern California are projected using a new hybrid dynamical–statistical framework. Output from all general circulation models (GCMs) in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project archive is downscaled to 2-km resolution over the region. Variables pertaining to snow are analyzed for the middle (2041–60) and end (2081–2100) of the twenty-first century under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios: RCP8.5 (business as usual) and RCP2.6 (mitigation). These four sets of projections are compared with a baseline reconstruction of climate from 1981 to 2000....
From http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nclimate2809.html, the Correspondence begins: California is currently experiencing a record-setting drought that started in 2012 and recently culminated in the first ever mandatory state-wide water restriction 1. The snowpack conditions in the Sierra Nevada mountains present an ominous sign of the severity of this drought: the 1 April 2015 snow water equivalent (SWE) was at only 5% of its historical average 2. In the Mediterranean climate of California, with 80% of the precipitation occurring during winter months, Sierra Nevada snowpack plays a critical role in replenishing the state's water reservoirs and provides 30% of its water supply 3. As a result,...
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The Colorado River is the dominant water source for the southwestern United States, crossing through seven states before reaching Mexico. The river supplies water to approximately 36 million people, irrigates nearly six million acres of farmland within and beyond the basin, and contributes an estimated 26 billion dollars each year to the region’s recreational economy. Yet the Colorado River’s water supply is already fully allocated, meaning that the economic and environmental health of the region is closely tied to the river’s streamflow. Climate projections for the Southwest show a future marked by chronic drought and substantial reductions in streamflow. The region has already been impacted by climate change,...
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This data release contains historical SnowModel (Liston and Elder, 2006) output for the Crown of the Continent and surrounding areas in Montana and Idaho, USA; and Alberta and British Columbia, Canada from September 1, 1981 through August 31, 2020. Fifteen daily variables were simulated or derived for this release: (1) snow water equivalent (swed), (2) liquid precipitation (rpre), (3) solid precipitation (spre), (4) albedo (albd), (5) glacial ice melt (glmt), (6) total precipitation (prec), (7) runoff (roff), (8) snow covered area (sca), (9) snow density (sden), (10) snowmelt (smlt), (11) snow depth (snod), (12) snow sublimation (ssub), (13) air temperature (tair), (14) wind speed (wspd), and (15) wind direction...
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This collection of layers includes summary statistics from input and output data used for simulation of vegetation response to climate change in California. The historical data layers represent the 30 year period from 1961 to 1990. Future data layers represent each four 20 year periods: 2010-2029, 2030-2049, 2060-2079, and 2080-2099. The simulations were performed using MC1 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), source code revision 152. The model was parameterized and evaluated by the DGVM research group at the US Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, with support from the Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Center. The model was parameterized to maximize concordance with maps of potential...
The soil emission rates (fluxes) of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen oxides (NO + NO2 = NOx) through a seasonal snowpack were determined by a flux gradient method from near-continuous 2-year measurements using an automated system for sampling interstitial air at various heights within the snowpack from a subalpine site at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. The winter seasonal-averaged N2O fluxes of 0.047-0.069 nmol m-2 s-1 were ~15 times higher than observed NOx fluxes of 0.0030-0.0067 nmol m-2 s-1. During spring N2O emissions first peaked and then dropped sharply as the soil water content increased from the release of snowpack meltwater, while other gases, including NOx and CO2 did not show this behavior. To compare and contrast...
Map-based access to data from individual SNOTEL sites. Data from each individual SNOTEL site is given in the form of a report. Data that are available includes temperature, snow depth, snow water equivalent and can be viewed as recent data or historical data.
In the Central Rocky Mountains, snowfall dominates precipitation. Airborne contaminants retained in the snowpack can affect high elevation surface water chemistry during snowmelt. At the Fraser Experimental Forest (FEF), located west of the Continental Divide in Central Colorado, snowmelt dominates the annual hydrograph, and accounts for >95% of annual stream water discharge. During the winters of 1989?1993, we measured precipitation inputs, snowpack water equivalent (SWE) and ion content, and stream water chemistry every 7?10 days along a 3150?3500 m elevation gradient in the subalpine and alpine Lexen Creek watershed. The study objectives were to (1) quantify the distribution of SWE and snowpack chemical content...
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The U.S. Forest Service plans to conduct forest restoration treatments through the Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI) on hundreds of thousands of acres of ponderosa pine forest along the Mogollon Rim of Arizona over the next 20 years with the goals of reducing wildfire hazard and improving forest health. The 4FRI’s key objective is to thin and burn the forests to create within-stand openings that “promote snowpack accumulation and retention which benefit groundwater recharge and watershed processes at the fine (1 to 10 acres) scale.” However, little is known about how these openings created by restoration treatments affect snow water equivalence (SWE) and soil moisture, which are key parts of the water balance...
Categories: Data; Types: Map Service, OGC WFS Layer, OGC WMS Layer, OGC WMS Service; Tags: 2013, AL-04, AZ-01, Academics & scientific researchers, Applications and Tools, All tags...
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This collection of layers includes summary statistics from input and output data used for simulation of vegetation response to climate change in California. The historical data layers represent the 30 year period from 1961 to 1990. Future data layers represent each four 20 year periods: 2010-2029, 2030-2049, 2060-2079, and 2080-2099. The simulations were performed using MC1 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), source code revision 152. The model was parameterized and evaluated by the DGVM research group at the US Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, with support from the Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Center. The model was parameterized to maximize concordance with maps of potential...
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Discrete snow depth data were collected during multiple winter campaigns during 2020–22. These data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Next Generation Water Observing System (NGWOS) Upper Colorado River Basin project focusing on the relation of snow dynamics and water resources. Snow depth was measured using either an avalanche probe and handheld global positioning system (GPS) unit or a snow depth probe with attached Juniper Systems Geode GPS receiver and a Mesa tablet. These data are released in a comma separated value file.
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Data was collected to characterize the conditions under which sagebrush occurs after seeding and wildfire in the Great Basin, and used to parameterize models used to explore adaptive seeding approaches. Data includes plot level field data on sagebrush occurrence, density, weather, and soil moisture conditions in the year that seeding after wildfire occurred. Weather data includes both average annual summaries and average weather at 5-day intervals from day 1-250 of the year of seeding. Also included are summaries of annual temperature and soil moisture conditions from 1979 to 2016 and model predictions of the probability of sagebrush establishment in each of these years.
Fluxes of CO2 during the snow-covered season contribute to annual carbon budgets, but our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the seasonal pattern and magnitude of carbon emissions in seasonally snow-covered areas is still developing. In a subalpine meadow on Niwot Ridge, Colorado, soil CO2 fluxes were quantified with the gradient method through the snowpack in winter 2006 and 2007 and with chamber measurements during summer 2007. The CO2 fluxes of 0.71 ?mol m?2 s?1 in 2006 and 0.86 ?mol m?2 s?1 in 2007 are among the highest reported for snow-covered ecosystems in the literature. These fluxes resulted in 156 and 189 g C m?2 emitted over the winter, ~30% of the annual soil CO2 efflux at this site. In general,...


map background search result map search result map Projecting Future Streamflow in the Colorado River Basin Simulated Snowpack During Historical Period Forecast Snowpack Under PCM A2 Scenario Forecast Snowpack Under GFDL B1 Scenario Catchment-flowline network and selected model inputs for an enhanced and updated spatially referenced statistical assessment of dissolved-solids load sources and transport in streams of the Upper Colorado River Basin Final Report: Predicting Snow Water Equivalence (SWE) and Soil Moisture Response to Restoration Treatments in Headwater Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Desert LCC Environmental conditions, covariate data used in model fitting, and long-term establishment predictions from 1979 to 2016 in the Great Basin, USA NGWOS Ground Based Discrete Snowpack Measurements Discrete Snow Depth Measurements in the Upper Colorado River Basin, 2020-22 Historical simulated snowpack and other hydrometeorology data at 90 m for the Crown of the Continent and vicinity, United States and Canada, water years 1981-2020 HUC12-Monthly Summaries NGWOS Ground Based Discrete Snowpack Measurements Discrete Snow Depth Measurements in the Upper Colorado River Basin, 2020-22 Final Report: Predicting Snow Water Equivalence (SWE) and Soil Moisture Response to Restoration Treatments in Headwater Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Desert LCC Historical simulated snowpack and other hydrometeorology data at 90 m for the Crown of the Continent and vicinity, United States and Canada, water years 1981-2020 HUC12-Monthly Summaries Catchment-flowline network and selected model inputs for an enhanced and updated spatially referenced statistical assessment of dissolved-solids load sources and transport in streams of the Upper Colorado River Basin Environmental conditions, covariate data used in model fitting, and long-term establishment predictions from 1979 to 2016 in the Great Basin, USA Projecting Future Streamflow in the Colorado River Basin Simulated Snowpack During Historical Period Forecast Snowpack Under PCM A2 Scenario Forecast Snowpack Under GFDL B1 Scenario