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In both 1984 and 1985 Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra) attempted to nest on sandy islets at the Dry Tortugas, Florida. Nesting attempts failed because the nest sites were washed away by summer storms. It seems likely that this species will eventually nest there successfully and will establish a small breeding population. This is the first documented nesting by this species in the contiguous United States.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi ) eggs collected from two colonies in southern Texas in 1985 had low mean concentrations of DDE (0.14-0.27 ppm wet weight). DDD, the only other organochlorine contaminant detected, was found in only 1 of 20 eggs. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly correlated with eggshell thickness. Mean DDE concentrations were significantly higher in eggs collected from nests where not all of the remaining eggs hatched (1.0 ppm) than in eggs collected from nests where all the remaining eggs hatched (0.15 ppm).
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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1. Thirteen mixed-species heronries (10 in Florida, two in Virginia, one in North Carolina) were studied in 1980 as part of a project begun in 1979 aimed at evaluating the 'flight-line' census method..2. Standardized counts of Snowy and Cattle Egrets, Louisiana and Little Blue Herons flying to and from the nesting colony were made for three hr periods, followed by a nest count of the colony. 3.Significant differences were found in the flight rates (number of birds per nest x hour) of the four species at the Chincoteague colony. However, when Cattle Egrets and Louisiana Herons were compared at all 13 colonies, their respective flight rates were in opposite rank to those at Chincoteague. Colony differences, then,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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Endangered Least Terns (Sterna antillarum) and threatened Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) nest at commercial sand and gravel mining operations (sand pits) along the Platte River system in Nebraska. Sandbar habitat has been disappearing since the early 1900's along the Platte River system, but numbers of sand pits have increased. We hypothesized that birds would more fully utilize sand pits where suitable sandbar habitat was limited. We inventoried sand pits and censused terns and plovers on both habitats along the Loup River, part of the North Loup River, and most of the Platte River during 1988-1991. Using aircraft, we also quantified features of suitable sand pits present on the central Platte in 1988 and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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(excerpt from Forword) The Mediterranean Symposium, part of the annual conference of The Colonial Waterbird Society in October 1993 in Arles, France, was the successful culmination of ideas shared among leading European waterbird and wetland scientists... Both invited and contributed papers focused on two areas - breeding biology (especially of threatened or little known species), and feeding ecology. Eighteen oral presentations were given and 27 poster papers were developed.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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Radiotracking transmitters were fitted to White-tailed Tropicbirds nesting at Culebra, Puerto Rico. Foragers were located by light aircraft out to 89 km SSW of the nesting colony, over a deep-water foraging area south of Vieques Island, Puerto Rico and west of St Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands. Two birds were followed out to 176 km NNW from the colony, over the Puerto Rico Trench, but these did not subsequently return. Foragers carrying radio transmitters performed similarly to those without, in terms of duration of absence from the colony, and mass of food brought for the chick. However, measuremetns of energy consumption by the doubly labelled water method indicated that birds with transmitters consumed significantly...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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White-faced ibis eggs collected from 2 colonies in southern Texas in 1985 had low mean concentrations of DDE. DDD, the only other organochlorine contaminant detected, was found in only 1 of 20 eggs. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly correlated with eggshell thickness. Mean DDE concentrations were significantly higher in eggs collected from nests where not all of the remaining eggs hatched than in eggs collected from nests where all the remaining eggs hatched.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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Heavy metal and selenium concentrations were determined in Olivaceous Cormorants (Phalacrocorax olivaceus ), Laughing gulls (Larus atricilla ), and Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger ) nesting in Galveston Bay, Texas, during 1980-81. Lead was detected at low levels in a small proportion of the liver samples. Mercury was present in all livers sampled, the highest levels being found in cormorants (7.8 ppm) and skimmers (16 ppm). Concentrations were considerably lower than those reported in birds from mercury-contaminated lakes in northern United States and Canada. Cadmium and selenium were detected in 93 and 95% of the kidneys. Cadmium was highest in gulls and skimmers with a maximum value of 16 ppm. Selenium levels were...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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Remote sensing techniques such as radar altimetry, synthetic aperture radar, coastal zone color scanning, and infrared radiometry provide effective, instantaneous, and relatively inexpensive means for characterizing critical habitats of marine birds. In order to make optimal use of satellite-derived data, the rationale for marine habitat classification is presented, and advantages and limitations of different remote sensing techniques are discussed. An application of remote characterization is used to test for short-term habitat use and selection by the Black-Capped Petrel (Pterodroma hasitata). By comparing synoptic satellite mapping (e.g. infrared radiometry) with ship-board censusing, it was possible to demonstrate...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus ) collected in the Houston Ship Channel, Texas, USA, in November shortly after their fall migration contained residues of several industrial, agricultural, and petroleum contaminants including polychlorinated styrenes (PCS's), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), DDE, and petroleum hydrocarbons. PCS concentrations in over-wintering birds collected in late February were three times higher than those in birds collected in November. PCB and petroleum concentrations remained at about the same level throughout the 3-month winter period. Petroleum hydrocarbons were present in all cormorants and residues in some individuals exceeded 25 ppm (wet weight). Mean DDE residues in...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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Historic records indicate that Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) were common breeders and abundant during migration on the Upper Mississippi River from St. Paul, Minnesota, to St. Louis, Missouri, during the 1940s and 1950s. Their numbers declined in the mid-to late-1950s, remained low through the 1970s, and began to increase somewhat in the late 1980s. Aerial surveys of migrating cormorants and ground surveys at cormorant colonies during 1991-1993, indicate that numbers have not returned to historic levels. Only 500-2,000 cormorants were seen during spring migration 1992-1993; and 5,000-7,000 during fall migration 1991-1992; whereas, tens of thousands were reported in the 1940s and 1950s. Four hundred...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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The feeding habits of the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were observed intermittently from 1967-1980 in Florida, USA. Approximately 97% of all observed foraging bouts were over marshes having sparse emergent vegetation. The visually-hunting kite was unable to forage over floating mats of exotic water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Male kites had shorter hunting bouts than females. For still-hunting, the birds' perches ranged from 0.15-4.6 m high and captures occurred an average of 5.8 m from perches. Females were significantly more successful (70%) for course-hunting than males (48%), but I found no difference for still-hunting. Birds tended to forage throughout the day, except for occasional inactive periods...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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Yellow-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax violaceus), Little Blue Herons (Egretta caerulea), and Green-backed Herons (Butorides striatus) collected in northeastern Louisiana from July-September 1980 exhibited different diets. Yellow-crowned Night-Herons fed mostly on crayfish (74% by weight) and Green-backed Herons fed primarily on fish (93% by weight). The diet of Little Blue Herons was diverse, including fish (61%), crustaceans (11%), insects (13%), and arachnids (14%). Yellow-crowned Night-Herons captured larger prey than did either of the smaller herons. Green-backed Herons took larger prey and a greater range of prey sizes than did the larger Little Blue Herons.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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Nesting Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) were studied at a number of barrier beaches and small islands of tidal salt marsh in New Jersey and the Eastern Shore of Maryland-Virginina from 1980 through 1982. Data were collected on clutch sizes, nest spacing, and nesting success. The principal null hypothesis tested was that no difference in reproductive success exists between beach and marsh habitats. Nests were monitored from egg-laying in mid-May until mid-July when young fledged. Clutch sizes varied among colonies and across years but no systematic effect of year, habitat, or colony size on mean clutch size per colony was detected. Analyses of nest productivity (estimated using both the Mayfield method and using a...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi) eggs collected in 1996 at Carson Lake, Nevada, showed no decrease in p,p′-DDE (DDE) concentrations from levels in 1985 and 1986 which is contrary to DDE patterns shown for most avian species. An estimated 40-45% of the population was adversely affected by DDE in 1985, 1986, and 1996 with a probable net loss of about 20% of the expected productivity. One segment of the nesting population at Carson Lake in 1996 averaged 18.3% eggshell thinning, although the mean for the whole population is not known. Obvious population declines of White-faced Ibis have not been reported, although quantitative population data are incomplete; however, the excellent and predictable food sources on the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds
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During the summers of 1981 and 1982, studies were conducted at Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, Long Island, New York, to determine whether annual water-level drawdowns used to create shorebird habitat also led to the occurrence of avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C). Low levels of morbidity and mortality from avian botulism occurred on the two ponds throughout both summers, but there was no apparent relationship between the occurrence or rates of botulism losses and drawdowns of the ponds. Botulism also occurred throughout both summers on other areas of the refuge. Botulinal toxin was found in fly larvae associated with avian carcasses, including birds that did not die from botulism. Toxin was not found in...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Colonial Waterbirds