This report is published as one of a series of technical inputs to the National Climate Assessment (NCA) 2013 report. The NCA is being conducted under the auspices of the Global Change Research Act of 1990, which requires a report to the President and Congress every four years on the status of climate change science and impacts. The NCA informs the nation about already observed changes, the current status of the climate, and anticipated trends for the future. The NCA report process integrates scientific information from multiple sources and sectors to highlight key findings and significant gaps in our knowledge. Findings from the NCA provide input to federal science priorities and are used by U.S. citizens, communities, and businesses as they create more sustainable and environmentally sound plans for the nation’s future. In fall 2011, the NCA requested technical input from a broad range of experts in academia, private industry, state and local governments, non-government organizations, professional societies, and impacted communities, with the intent of producing a better informed and more useful report in 2013. In particular, the eight NCA regions, as well as the Coastal and the Ocean biogeographical regions, were asked to contribute technical input reports highlighting past climate trends, projected climate change, and impacts to specific sectors in their regions. Each region established its own process for developing this technical input. The lead authors for related chapters in the 2013 NCA report, which will include a much shorter synthesis of climate change for each region, are using these technical input reports as important source material. By publishing this series of regional technical input reports, Island Press hopes to make this rich collection of information more widely available. This series includes the following reports: Climate Change and Pacific Islands: Indicators and Impacts Coastal Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerabilities Great Plains Regional Technical Input Report Climate Change in the Midwest: A Synthesis Report for the National Climate Assessment Climate Change in the Northeast: A Sourcebook Climate Change in the Northwest: Implications for Our Landscapes, Waters, and Communities Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate Climate of the Southeast United States: Variability, Change, Impacts, and Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States Electronic copies of all reports can be accessed on the Climate Adaptation Knowledge Exchange (CAKE) website at www.cakex.org/NCAreports. Printed copies and e-book versions are available for sale on the Island Press website at www.islandpress.org/NCAreports.