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The provision of both electrical and mechanical energy services can play a critical role in poverty alleviation for the almost two billion rural users who currently lack access to electricity. Distributed generation using diesel generators remains a common means of electricity provision for rural communities throughout the world. Due to rising fuel costs, the need to address poverty, and consequences of global warming, it is necessary to develop cost efficient means of reducing fossil fuel consumption in isolated diesel microgrids. Based on a case study in Nicaragua, a set of demand and supply side measures are ordered by their annualized costs in order to approximate an energy supply curve. The curve highlights...
In this paper, I develop a model where “exploration” yields information about the size and location of the stock of an exhaustible resource. This information is valuable in two ways. First, before production takes place, reserves must be located through exploration. The process of exploration changes “unproven reserves,” which cannot be produced, into “proven reserves,” which can. One value of exploration, then, is that it allows total production over time to expand (the expansion effect). Second, by exploring in an early time period, a producer gains information about the true stock size prior to making a decision about how fast to exploit reserves. With better information, the extraction rate chosen by the producer...
Since the 1970s, Canada has formulated various strategy measures to accelerate the development of energy efficiency systems and renewable energy technologies and has made significant progress. "From 1990 to 2003, Canada's energy efficiency improved by an estimated 13%, or 883.3 petajoules, saving Canadians almost $13.4 billion in 2003 alone and reducing annual greenhouse gas emissions by 52.3 megatonnes". In 2000, about 17% of Canadian primary energy supply came from renewable sources (with hydroelectric, combustible renewables and waste). Canada is a leader in devising and implementing energy options for sustainable development. However, the nation still has great scope for furthering energy efficiency and more...
Nations must work together to minimize the risk of global warming. A worldwide energy efficiency campaign - led and coordinated by an International Energy Efficiency Agency (IEEA) - could be a critical component in such an effort. The IEEA could: I) strengthen energy efficiency efforts in industrialized countries; 2) help to build capability for implementing energy efficiency improvements in developing and East European countries; 3) provide capital for large-scale energy efficiency investments in developing and East European nations. Appropriate activities for the IEEA include information dissemination; joint R& D programrues; demonstration of technologies as well as policy instruments; training or supporting national...